Block diagram of computer

Block Diagram of Computer

In this blog post, we will explain the block diagram of computer and its various components. A computer system is a complex entity that is made up of several components, each performing a specific task. A block diagram of a computer system is a visual representation of these components and how they interact with each other.

What is a block diagram of computer?

A block diagram of a computer system is a visual representation of the various components that make up a computer and how they interact with each other. It provides a simplified view of the complex inner workings of a computer, making it easier for people to understand how the different components function and how they fit together to form a complete system. The block diagram typically includes components such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, input/output (I/O) devices, and communication buses. By breaking down the computer system into its individual components, the block diagram highlights the relationships and interactions between the different parts, making it easier to identify and understand the role of each component in the overall operation of the computer.

Block Diagram of Computer


Input in computing refers to data that enters into a computer system for processing. An Input can come from various sources, such as keyboard, mouse, touchpad, microphone, scanner, digital camera, or external devices such as a USB drive. The input devices connects to the computer and communicate with it through an Input/output (I/O) controller.

Once the data enters into the computer system, it stores in the memory and processes by the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The CPU then uses the input data to perform calculations and execute instructions, and the results are output through output devices such as a display screen, speakers, or printers.

Input is a critical part of the computer system as it allows users to interact with the computer and perform tasks. The quality of the input can impact the accuracy of the output, so it’s important to choose the right input device for the task at hand.


The central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer system. It is responsible for executing instructions and performing arithmetic and logical operations. The CPU connects to the memory and the input/output (I/O) devices through a bus, which serves as a communication channel.

ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit

ALU stands for Arithmetic Logic Unit, which is a fundamental part of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) in a computer system. The ALU is responsible for performing arithmetic operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and logical operations, such as AND, OR, NOT, and XOR.

An ALU takes input from the CPU and performs the necessary operations on the data, then passes the results back to the CPU for storage in memory or further processing. The ALU operates on binary data, and its operations controlled by the control unit of the CPU.

CU – Control Unit

The control unit (CU) is a component of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) in a computer system. Its main function is to manage and coordinate the operations of the other components of the computer, including the memory, input/output devices, and arithmetic logic unit (ALU).

Memory Unit

Memory refers to the storage area of the computer system where data and instructions stores temporarily. There are two types of memory in a computer system: RAM (Random Access Memory) and ROM (Read-Only Memory). RAM is volatile, meaning that its contents lost when the power turns off. On the other hand, ROM non-volatile and its contents permanent even after the power turned off.

Primary Memory

Primary memory (also known as main memory or RAM) and secondary memory (also known as auxiliary memory or storage) are two types of computer memory that used to store data and programs.

This memory is a type of computer memory that is directly accessible to the CPU (Central Processing Unit) and used to store data and instructions that are being actively used. It is volatile, meaning that it loses its contents when the computer is turned off. RAM (Random Access Memory) most common type of primary memory and used to store temporary data that needs for current programs and applications.

Secondary Memory

This memory used to store data and programs that are not actively being used but need to be preserved for future use. Secondary memory is non-volatile, meaning that it retains its contents even when the computer is turned off. Examples of secondary memory include hard disk drives (HDD), solid-state drives (SSD), and USB drives.


The motherboard is the main circuit board of the computer system. It houses the CPU, memory, and I/O controller, and connects these components to each other through buses. The motherboard also contains expansion slots, which used to add additional components to the computer system.

Output in a computer system refers to the results of a computation or process that presented to the user. An Output displays on various devices such as a monitor, speakers, or printer, and produces by the computer after it has processed the input data.


The output can be in various forms, including text, images, sound, or video, and generated based on the instructions provided by the user or a program. The computer system uses output devices to communicate the results of its processing to the user.

Output is an important aspect of a computer system as it allows users to see the results of their actions and decisions. The quality of the output can impact the user’s ability to understand and make use of the results, so it’s important to choose the right output device for the task at hand.


In conclusion, a computer system is complex entity makes of several components that interact with each other. Understanding the components and how they fit into a block diagram is essential for understanding how a computer system works. Whether you are a computer enthusiast or a professional, a basic understanding of computer systems is valuable.

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